The world's most trusted clinically focused anatomy text! Renowned for comprehensive coverage, the best-selling Clinically Oriented Anatomy guides students from initial anatomy and foundational science courses through clinical training and practice. The eighth edition reflects significant new information and updates and maintains the highest standards for scientific and clinical accuracy. Comprehensive updates reflect changes in the clinical application of anatomy as well as new imaging technologies, focusing on the anatomy that students need to know. Extensively revised "Clinical Blue Boxes" explore the practical applications of anatomy, and helpful icons distinguish the type of clinical information covered in each. Clinically relevant anatomy focuses on physical diagnosis, interpretation of diagnostic imaging, and understanding the anatomical basis of emergency medicine and general surgery. Insightfully rendered, anatomically accurate illustrations, with updates throughout , make this book an aesthetically rewarding learning resource. Combined with many photographs and medical images, these stunning visuals facilitate comprehension of anatomical concepts and retention of "mental images" of anatomical structures. New and updated medical imaging and integrated surface anatomy within each chapter demonstrates the relationship between anatomy, physical examination, and diagnosis. Expanded "Overview and Basic Concepts" chapter includes functional systemic anatomy summaries and introduces approaches to studying anatomy, terminology, imaging, and more. Inclusion of new sections describing the enteric nervous system (considered by some as a "second brain") and its unique role in the innervation of the digestive system gives students cutting-edge insight into this significant scientific discovery. A more realistic approach to the musculoskeletal system explores the action and use of muscles and muscle groups in daily activities, emphasizing gait and grip. "Bottom Line" boxes summarize information to facilitate ongoing review and underscore the big-picture viewpoint. Clinical Blue Box animations, case studies, and interactive multiple-choice questions online at thePoint.lww.com facilitate review and self-testing.
Contents Preface / Acknowledgments / List of Clinical Blue Boxes / Figure Credits / 1 Overview and Basic Concepts / APPROACHES TO STUDYING ANATOMY / Regional Anatomy / Systemic Anatomy / Clinical Anatomy / ANATOMICOMEDICAL TERMINOLOGY / Anatomical Position / Anatomical Planes / Terms of Relationship and Comparison / Terms of Laterality / Terms of Movement / ANATOMICAL VARIATIONS / INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM / FASCIAS, FASCIAL COMPARTMENTS, BURSAE, AND POTENTIAL SPACES / SKELETAL SYSTEM / Cartilage and Bones / Classification of Bones / Bone Markings and Formations Bone Development / Vasculature and Innervation of Bones / Joints / MUSCLE TISSUE AND MUSCULAR SYSTEM / Types of Muscle (Muscle Tissue) / Skeletal Muscles / Cardiac Striated Muscle / Smooth Muscle / CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM / Vascular Circuits / Blood Vessels / LYMPHOID SYSTEM / NERVOUS SYSTEM / Central Nervous System / Peripheral Nervous System / Somatic Nervous System / Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) / MEDICAL IMAGING TECHNIQUES / Conventional Radiography / Computed Tomography / Ultrasonography / Magnetic Resonance Imaging / Nuclear Medicine Imaging / 2 Back / OVERVIEW OF BACK AND VERTEBRAL COLUMN / VERTEBRAE / Structure and Function of Vertebrae / Regional Characteristics of Vertebrae / Ossification of Vertebrae / Variations in Vertebrae / VERTEBRAL COLUMN / Joints of Vertebral Column / Movements of Vertebral Column / Curvatures of Vertebral Column / Vasculature of Vertebral Column / Nerves of Vertebral Column / MUSCLES OF BACK / Extrinsic Back Muscles / Intrinsic Back Muscles / Surface Anatomy of Back Muscles / Suboccipital and Deep Neck Muscles / CONTENTS OF VERTEBRAL CANAL / Spinal Cord / Spinal Nerves and Nerve Roots / Spinal Meninges and Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) / Vasculature of Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerve Roots / 3 Upper Limb / OVERVIEW OF UPPER LIMB / COMPARISON OF UPPER AND LOWER LIMBS / BONES OF UPPER LIMB / Clavicle / Scapula / Humerus / Bones of Forearm / Bones of Hand / Surface Anatomy of Upper Limb Bones / FASCIA, EFFERENT VESSELS, CUTANEOUS INNERVATION, AND MYOTOMES OF UPPER LIMB / Fascia of Upper Limb / Venous Drainage of Upper Limb / Lymphatic Drainage of Upper Limb / Cutaneous Innervation of Upper Limb / Motor Innervation (Myotomes) of Upper Limb / ECTORAL AND SCAPULAR REGIONS / Anterior Axio-appendicular Muscles / Posterior Axio-Appendicular and Scapulohumeral Muscles / Surface Anatomy of Pectoral, Scapular, and Deltoid Regions / Axillary Artery / Axillary Vein / Axillary Lymph Nodes / Brachial Plexus / ARM / Muscles of Arm / Brachial Artery / Veins of Arm / Nerves of Arm / Cubital Fossa / Surface Anatomy of Arm and Cubital Fossa / FOREARM / Compartments of Forearm / Muscles of Forearm / Arteries of Forearm / Veins of Forearm / Nerves of Forearm / Surface Anatomy of Forearm / HAND / Fascia and Compartments of Palm / Muscles of Hand / Long Flexor Tendons and Tendon Sheaths in Hand / Arteries of Hand / Veins of Hand / Nerves of Hand / Surface Anatomy of Hand / JOINTS OF UPPER LIMB / Sternoclavicular Joint / Acromioclavicular Joint / Glenohumeral Joint / Elbow Joint / Proximal Radio-Ulnar Joint / Distal Radio-Ulnar Joint / Wrist Joint / Intercarpal Joints / Carpometacarpal and Intermetacarpal Joints / Metacarpophalangeal and Interphalangeal Joints / 4 Thorax / OVERVIEW OF THORAX / THORACIC WALL / Skeleton of Thoracic Wall / Thoracic Apertures / Joints of Thoracic Wall / Movements of Thoracic Wall / Muscles of Thoracic Wall / Fascia of Thoracic Wall / Nerves of Thoracic Wall / Vasculature of Thoracic Wall / Breasts / Surface Anatomy of Thoracic Wall / VISCERA OF THORACIC CAVITY / Pleurae, Lungs, and Tracheobronchial Tree / Overview of Mediastinum / Pericardium / Heart / Superior Mediastinum and Great Vessels / Posterior Mediastinum / Anterior Mediastinum / Surface Anatomy of Heart and Mediastinal Viscera / Auscultatory Areas / 5 Abdomen / OVERVIEW: WALLS, CAVITIES, REGIONS, AND PLANES / ANTEROLATERAL ABDOMINAL WALL / Fascia of Anterolateral Abdominal Wall / Muscles of Anterolateral Abdominal Wall / Neurovasculature of Anterolateral Abdominal Wall / Internal Surface of Anterolateral Abdominal Wall / Inguinal Region / Spermatic Cord, Scrotum, and Testes / Surface Anatomy of Anterolateral Abdominal Wall / PERITONEUM AND PERITONEAL CAVITY / Embryology of Peritoneal Cavity / Peritoneal Formations / Subdivisions of Peritoneal Cavity / ABDOMINAL VISCERA / Overview of Abdominal Viscera and Digestive Tract / Esophagus / Stomach / Small Intestine / Large Intestine / Spleen / Pancreas / Liver / Biliary Ducts and Gallbladder / Kidneys, Ureters, and Suprarenal Glands / Summary of Innervation of Abdominal Viscera / DIAPHRAGM / Vessels and Nerves of Diaphragm / Diaphragmatic Apertures / Actions of Diaphragm / POSTERIOR ABDOMINAL WALL / Fascia of Posterior Abdominal Wall / Muscles of Posterior Abdominal Wall / Nerves of Posterior Abdominal Wall / Vessels of Posterior Abdominal Wall / SECTIONAL MEDICAL IMAGING OF ABDOMEN / 6 Pelvis and Perineum INTRODUCTION TO PELVIS AND PERINEUM / PELVIC GIRDLE / Bones and Features of Pelvic Girdle / Orientation of Pelvic Girdle / Pelvic Girdle Sexual Differences / Joints and Ligaments of Pelvic Girdle / PELVIC CAVITY / Walls and Floor of Pelvic Cavity / Peritoneum and Peritoneal Cavity of Pelvis / Pelvic Fascia / NEUROVASCULAR STRUCTURES OF PELVIS / Pelvic Arteries / Pelvic Veins / Lymph Nodes of Pelvis / Pelvic Nerves / PELVIC VISCERA / Urinary Organs / Rectum / Male Internal Genital Organs / Female Internal Genital Organs / Lymphatic Drainage of Pelvic Viscera / PERINEUM / Fasciae and Pouches of Urogenital Triangle / Features of Anal Triangle / Male Urogenital Triangle / Female Urogenital Triangle / SECTIONAL MEDICAL IMAGING OF PELVIS AND PERINEUM / Magnetic Resonance Imaging / 7 Lower Limb / OVERVIEW OF LOWER LIMB / DEVELOPMENT OF LOWER LIMB / BONES OF LOWER LIMB / Arrangement of Lower Limb Bones / Hip Bone / Illium / Femur / Patella / Tibia and Fibula / Bones of Foot / Surface Anatomy of Bones of Foot FASCIA, VEINS, LYMPHATICS, EFFERENT VESSELS, AND CUTANEOUS NERVES OF LOWER LIMB / Subcutaneous Tissue and Fascia / Venous Drainage of Lower Limb / Lymphatic Drainage of Lower Limb / Cutaneous Innervation of Lower Limb / Motor Innervation of Lower Limb / POSTURE AND GAIT / Standing at Ease / Walking: The Gait Cycle / ANTERIOR AND MEDIAL REGIONS OF THIGH / Organization of Proximal Lower Limb / Anterior Thigh Muscles / Medial Thigh Muscles / Neurovascular Structures and Relationships in Anteromedial Thigh / Surface Anatomy of Anterior and Medial Regions of Thigh / GLUTEAL AND POSTERIOR THIGH REGIONS / Gluteal Region: Buttocks and Hip Region / Muscles of Gluteal Region / Posterior Thigh Region / Neurovascular Structures of Gluteal and Posterior Thigh Regions / Surface Anatomy of Gluteal and Posterior Thigh Regions / POPLITEAL FOSSA AND LEG / Popliteal Region / Anterior Compartment of Leg / Lateral Compartment of Leg / Posterior Compartment of Leg / Surface Anatomy of Leg / FOOT / Skin and Fascia of Foot / Muscles of Foot / Neurovascular Structures and Relationships in Foot / Surface Anatomy of Ankle and Foot Regions / JOINTS OF LOWER LIMB / Hip Joint / Knee Joint / Tibiofibular Joints / Ankle Joint / Foot Joints / Surface Anatomy of Joints of Knee, Ankle, and Foot / 8 Head / OVERVIEW OF HEAD / CRANIUM / Facial Aspect of Cranium / Lateral Aspect of Cranium / Occipital Aspect of Cranium / Superior Aspect of Cranium / External Surface of Cranial Base / Internal Surface of Cranial Base / Walls of Cranial Cavity / Regions of Head / FACE AND SCALP / Face / Scalp / Muscles of Face and Scalp / Nerves of Face and Scalp / Superficial Vasculature of Face and Scalp / Surface Anatomy of Face / CRANIAL MENINGES / Dura Mater / Arachnoid Mater and Pia Mater / Meningeal Spaces / BRAIN / Parts of Brain / Ventricular System of Brain / Arterial Blood Supply to Brain / Venous Drainage of Brain / EYE, ORBIT, ORBITAL REGION, AND EYEBALL / Orbits / Eyelids and Lacrimal Apparatus / Eyeball / Extra-ocular Muscles of Orbit / Nerves of Orbit / Vasculature of Orbit / Surface Anatomy of Eye and Lacrimal Apparatus / PAROTID AND TEMPORAL REGIONS, INFRATEMPORAL FOSSA, AND TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT / Parotid Region / Temporal Region / Infratemporal Fossa / ORAL REGION / Oral Cavity / Lips, Cheeks, and Gingivae / Teeth / Palate / Tongue / Salivary Glands / PTERYGOPALATINE FOSSA / Pterygopalatine Part of Maxillary Artery / Maxillary Nerve / NOSE / External Nose / Nasal Cavities / Vasculature and Innervation of Nose / Paranasal Sinuses / EAR / External Ear / Middle Ear / Internal Ear / 9 Neck OVERVIEW / BONES OF NECK / Cervical Vertebrae / Hyoid Bone / FASCIA OF NECK / Cervical Subcutaneous Tissue and Platysma / Deep Cervical Fascia / SUPERFICIAL STRUCTURES OF NECK: CERVICAL REGIONS / Sternocleidomastoid Region / Posterior Cervical Region / Lateral Cervical Region / Anterior Cervical Region / Surface Anatomy of Cervical Regions and Triangles of Neck / DEEP STRUCTURES OF NECK / Prevertebral Muscles / Root of Neck / VISCERA OF NECK / Endocrine Layer of Cervical Viscera / Respiratory Layer of Cervical Viscera / Alimentary Layer of Cervical Viscera / Surface Anatomy of Endocrine and Respiratory Layers of Cervical Viscera / LYMPHATICS OF NECK / 10 Cranial Nerves / OVERVIEW / OLFACTORY NERVE (CN I) / OPTIC NERVE (CN II) / OCULOMOTOR NERVE (CN III) / TROCHLEAR NERVE (CN IV) / TRIGEMINAL NERVE (CN V) / Ophthalmic Nerve (CN V1) / Maxillary Nerve (CN V2) / Mandibular Nerve (CN V3) / ABDUCENT NERVE (CN VI) / FACIAL NERVE (CN VII) / Somatic (Branchial) Motor / Visceral (Parasympathetic) Motor / Somatic (General) Sensory / Special Sensory (Taste) / VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE (CN VIII) / GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE (CN IX) / Somatic (Branchial) Motor / Visceral (Parasympathetic) Motor / Somatic (General) Sensory / Special Sensory (Taste) / Visceral Sensory / VAGUS NERVE (CN X) / SPINAL ACCESSORY NERVE (CN XI) / HYPOGLOSSAL NERVE (CN XII) / Appendix / Index /