Muscle testing - A Concise Manual, provides a reference for understanding how structure relates to function, and how by knowing function we can learn structural configurations. Often muscular anatomy is taught as a dry subject whereby each muscle is painstakingly reviewed and the learner is expected to cite origin, insertion, action, nerve supply and blood supply. This commonly used approach may not necessarily aid understanding of muscle function, nor does it demonstrate muscular positioning. Through muscle testing, one is better equipped to consider how muscles function individually and in working groups. It is the knowledge of symmetrical movement, range of motion, contractile patterns, resistance and gravity that provides the fuller picture for muscle function and dysfunction. The text is organised in such a way as to enable the reader to understand anatomical position and assessment of muscular contractile strength. The manual provides movement-relevant illustrations to aid understanding of muscle location and testing positions. This is further enhanced through links to video footage for each test. The book summarises the key anatomical facts and figures, give methods for muscle testing by several techniques, and provides clinically useful information to supplement the tests.
Introduction - how to use this book Principles of muscle testing - an overview Introduction to musculoskeletal palpation, assessment, evaluation and rehabilitation advice List of muscles Head and neck Upper trapezius Sternocleidomastoid Scalene Splenius capitis Levator scapula Anterior torso and trunk Rectus abdominis Transverse abdominis Pectoralis major (clavicular) Pectoralis major (sternal) Pectoralis minor Posterior torso and trunk Quadratus lumborum Erector spinae group (sacrospinalis) Latissimus dorsi Mid trapezius Lower trapezius Serratus anterior Rhomboid group Upper extremity Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Subscapularis Anterior deltoid Medial deltoid Posterior deltoid Coracobrachialis Biceps brachii Triceps brachii Brachioradialis Supinator Pronator teres Pronator quadratus Opponens pollicis Opponens digiti minimi Pelvis Psoas Iliacus Piriformis Gluteus maximus Gluteus medius Lower extremity Quadriceps as a group Rectus femoris Hamstrings as a group Medial hamstrings (semitendinosus and semimembranosus) Biceps femoris Adductor group Gracilis Popliteus Sartorius Gastrocnemius Soleus Anterior tibialis Posterior tibialis Fibularis group (peroneus) Extensor hallucis longus Flexor hallucis longus Extensor digitorum longus and brevis Gait testing Ipsi lateral gait Contra-lateral Gait Side Gait 1 Side Gait 2 Abdominal Gait